Showing posts with label Raw Material. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Raw Material. Show all posts

August 25, 2014

SAIL - Tata Steel JV started scouting for acquisition of overseas coal assets

After acquiring a large coal property in Mozambique less than a fort-night ago, the State-run Indian steel major Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) has once again geared up its activities for fresh acquisitions of overseas coking coal assets. Now it is through SAIL-Tata Steel Ltd JV (joint venture) called S&T Mining, whose main purpose would be scouting and acquisition of overseas coal assets to ensure continuous supply of coking coal, a key raw material in steel production. 
S&T Mining, a joint venture between Tata Steel and SAIL, has already invited applications for prime coking coal assets with a minimum reserve of 100 million tones giving last date to submit applications is September 10. It is open to the option of stake purchase, long-term off take or any other arrangement to secure long-term supply of coking coal. Actually the JV, S&T Mining was formed in 2008 with an aim to secure, develop, and operate coal mines for its promoters, remained largely dormant all these years. "We will be getting increasingly active over the next few months at S&T Mining and will hopefully be in a position to take up new projects," Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) Chairman CS Verma said recently in a TV Channel. With international coal prices at a rock bottom, analysts feel it is the right time to pick up coking coal assets, especially for the likes of Tata Steel and SAIL, to meet their ambitious steelmaking capacity enhancement plans. SAIL is raising its capacity to 23 mt by 2015 and Tata Steel is set to commission 3 MT capacity plant at its upcoming unit in Odisha's Kalinganagar by March 2015.  
S&T Mining said it would certainly prefer mines in Australia. The company is seeking hard coking coal mines that will have an output of more than 2 MT of saleable coal per annum and a minimum asset life of 25 years. In particular, S&T Mining said it is interested in mines that are close to commissioning or one to two years from getting operative. SAIL and Tata Steel have captive coal mines, but both depend on largely imports of coking coal to meet their current requirement. SAIL relies on imports for 90 per cent of its coal needs, while Tata Steel imports 50 per cent of the coal it consumes. At present almost 80 percent of coking coal used by Indian steel industry is imported from Australia.

(Source: Excerpts from Economic Times)      

June 7, 2013

What is an Indurating Furnace

Indurating Furnaces are circular shaped furnaces like a Rotary Kiln and form a key part of one of the process routes for preparing iron ore fines for use in blast furnaces, and are specifically used to produce iron ore pellets.

Raw or “green” pellets need to be baked to give them sufficient mechanical strength to withstand further handling during transportation and charging to a blast furnace or to a direct reduced iron furnace.
Indurating Furnace - Arrangement of Iron Ore Pellets
Indurating Furnace - Arrangement of Pellets

Indurating Furnace
Indurating Furnace
In an Indurating Furnace, the pellets are loaded on to a travelling grate to a depth of approximately 30-60cm where they are preheated (typically to 800-9000C), before entering a higher temperature stage (around 1,200-1,3500C) which in some designs is a continuation of the travelling grate, and in others take the form of a rotary kiln. Once hardened the pellets are cooled ready for use. In a modern Indurating Furnace, there are 6 to 7 processing zones: Updraft drying (UDD) => Down draft drying (DDD) => Preheating (Ramp) => Firing => After-firing => Cooling. 
Refractory Lining | Steel Industry | Jobs: Iron Ore Pellets
Iron Ore Pellets
The thermal treatment done in an indurating furnace is similar to that of a straight line travelling grate. The gas and cooling air flow is down-draught. The grate bars are protected by hearth layer and the green pellet bed height is maintained about 20 cm in order to provide a better gas permeability. The side walls are protected with refractory lining. The fire pellets are removed from the grate by a scraping device which is installed at a sufficient distance between grate bar and hearth layer (with a depth approximately 5 cm) to leave the hearth layer in its position. The other route to preparing iron ore fines is to agglomerate them by sintering with coke and limestone.

 Also Read 


November 18, 2012

RHI inaugurates the largest fusion plant for Magnesia Raw Materials



RHI AG is a renowned name in the market, development, production and service of refractories. They are the Germany-based world leader in the field of refractories with 8100 employees and production facilities in about 32 countries and more than 100 locations around the world. Currently the total volume refractories produced by RHI AG is more than 2 million tonnes p.a. of Refractory Bricks (RefractoryBricks – Shapes and Sizes), Castables,Mortars and other functional products.
RHI has built and inaugurated one of the largest fusion plants for magnesia raw materials for more than 75 million euros in Norway in this month. In this fusion plant, magnesia obtained from sea water is converted to fused magnesia, which is a high-grade refractory raw material, at temperatures about 2800OC. With a capacity of approximately 85000 tonnes per year, the plant is one of the largest worldwide. According to RHI, 120 employees will work at the plant in full operation.
“We are increasing self-supply with magnesia raw materials, which are very important for the refractories industry, to 80% and thus continue to consistently pursue our strategy of backward integration. With this new plant, we will be completely independent from Asian fused magnesia imports. And we are shortening delivery routes to the European RHI sites”, said RHI CEO Franz Struzl at a press conference at the plant in Porsgrunn, Norway.
“The Porsgrunn location offers several advantages, including the infrastructure, the support of local politics and the energy costs in Norway. In addition, we have decades of experience, which gives us a very good command of the complex process of obtaining magnesia from seawater. The construction of the fusion plant is one of the largest onshore investments in Norway in five years and is planned as a long-term investment”, said RHI plant manager Roger Gravdal.
RHI acquired this fusion plant in Porsgrunn and another raw material plant in Drogheda (Ireland) last year. Both plants are based on the extraction of magnesia from sea water. RHI thus broadened its technological base in extracting refractory raw materials and increased the number of raw material plants to eight.
RHI mines magnesite and dolomite at six locations in Austria, Italy, Turkey and China in surface and underground mining. RHI produces about 1 million tonnes of refractory raw materials per year.
The advantage of fused magnesia from Norway lies in its highly refractory properties caused by the firing process by means of electrofusion, in which the crystalline structure magnesia is improved significantly and the magnesia (MgO) content is increased to nearly 100%.
Fused magnesia from Norway is primarily used at the European RHI plants Veitsch (Austria), Radenthein (Austria), Aken (Germany) and Duisburg (Germany) and processed to end products for the steel, cement, lime, refractory and some nonferrous Metals industries.
(Source: RHI)  
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July 22, 2010

Beach Sand Deposits in India: A Potential Source of Heavy Minerals including some used as Raw Materials in Refractory, Ferro-Alloys and Glass Industries

DISTRIBUTION OF heavy mineraLS IN BEACH SAND DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW
India is endowed with valuable resources of beach sand minerals. Indian beach-line along Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa where significant deposits of different minerals are available from beach sands, made this country one of the leading producers of heavy minerals in the world. The beach sand minerals constitute a group of important economic minerals such as - Ilmanite (FeO.TiO2), Rutile (TiO2), Monazite (Ce,La,Y,Th)PO4, Garnet, Sillimanite (Al2O3.SiO2) and Zircon (ZrO2.SiO2). The adjacent map shows the locations on the Indian beach-line where significant deposits of these minerals occur in varying size, concentration and grade ranging from 5% to 45%. 

Indian Beach-line where significant deposits of heavy minerals are found in the Beach Sands
Fig: Indian beach-line showing locations of heavy mineral deposits in beach sands.

Australia and Brazil are other major producers of these minerals. Most of the Australian occurrences are along the parts of coasts of New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia. The Australian deposits contain about 45% rutile while the Indian deposits have about 5% rutile. Around 90% of the world’s supply of rutile comes from Australia. However, the ilmanite content of the Australian deposits is quite low (around 20%). Further the high chromium content bars the usage of the Australian ilmanite in pigment industry. Brazil supplied around half of the world’s monazite till recently. The deposits occur mainly along 1600 km. of the coast which covers Rio de Janerio, Bahia, Espirito Santo, Parabyba and Rio Grande do Norte.
In India the heavy mineral deposits of west coast are largely concentrated as high-grade beach and low-grade dune deposits extending from Kanyakumari to Malabar Coast with interruptions. The main deposits are around Kayamkulam - Neendakara coast (popularly known as Quilon deposits) in Kerala and in the Manavalakurichi region in Tamil Nadu. The Quilon deposits extend for about 20 km in length while at Manavalakurichi the deposits spread over 2 km. Along the eastern coast a large resource of beach sand minerals was established near Chatarpur - Gopalpur Block having a coastal length of about 18 km and width of about 1.5 km where IRE is operating the mine for Orissa Sand Complex (OSCOM) plant. This Block alone has a resource of 62 million tonnes of heavy minerals having a grade of 18.50% in raw sand. According to a recent report titled “Recovery of Sillimanite from beach sand of Chatarpur, Orissa and its thermal treatment for refractory applications” published by Inder Science Publishers, in the beach sand of Chatarpur, sillimanite which has refractory applications accounts for 8% of these heavy minerals. The Chavara (Kerala) and Manavalakurichi (TN) are considered to be among the richest deposits in the world. On average basis Indian beach sand deposits contain about 9% rutile, 6% garnet, 3% sillimanite, and 1% monazite and zircon. While ilmanite dominates the Indian beach sand to an extent of 60% to 82%, the Australian sands have only about 20% of the same. However, in the latter rutile and zircon are comparatively in considerable amounts.
GEOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The heavy mineral deposits found in the beach sand comes under the category of Placer Deposits, have a special mode of occurrence along the sea coast, mostly influenced by the prevailing geological conditions in that region over a long period. Geologically speaking ‘Placer Deposits’ are those deposits which are found near or around the off-shore regions and have formed from rock alteration and little chemical and biogenic activities of pre-existing pegmatite rocks. The heavy minerals are thought to be derived from the crystalline basement rocks, chiefly of granitic and dioritic nature and also partly from Tertiary sediments. Khonadalites constitute the principal source rock of the Indian beach sand deposits of heavy minerals. These deposits are a product of river action which carried these to the sea where sorting and repeated wave action have resulted in concentration of heavy minerals along the sand bars. Deposits occur on present beaches, barrier beaches and old elevated inland beaches buried below sand dunes. The localization of some of these deposits is a result of changes in surface level and diversions of the complicated stream networks.
industrial uses of heavy minerals
Ilmanite (FeO.TiO2)
The opaque, black, mineral is important source of Titanium and its compounds (alloys). It serves as a source of titania for special glasses, a colouring agent for producing black coatings on brick and for developing speckled effects on ceramic tile and in pottery glazes.
Sillimanite (Al2O3 SiO2)
It is used as an important raw material for high alumina refractories for Cement, Iron and Steel, Ceramic, Petrochemical and Electrical industries. An important use of sillimanite refractories is in construction of glass melting tank furnace, because of the high resistance of sillimanite refractories towards corrosion and erosion of due molten glass. Sillimanite is used both as sand as well as in fines (pulverized in Ball Mill etc.). The fine grained material is especially suitable for the production of monolithic refractory. More about properties and uses of Sillimanite have been discussed in separate posts Sillimanite - Properties and Occurrence in India [Read] and Use of Sillimanite in Refractories [Read].
Rutile (TiO2)
It is used as coating of welding electrodes and manufacture of titanium dioxide. Rutile is also used to stain pottery bodies and glazes. Artificial teeth are among the ceramics so tinted.
Garnet
This mineral is mainly used for abrasives and in glass and optical industries.
Zircon (ZrO2.SiO2)
Zircon is used as raw material for the production of zirconium metal, other ferro-alloys and special refractories. Zircon nozzles of different shapes are for continuous casting of steel. Zircon-alumina (AZS), zircon-mullite (zirmul) refractories in different shapes are widely used as feeder refractories in the glass industries, in steel ladle, blast furnace etc. Due to the high hardness and abrasive resistance, zircon is used for making high density grinding media. The major uses of zircon can be categorized as follows:
(a) Refractories, Steel and Glass    :     35%
(b) Ceramics                                   :     25%
(c) Foundry                                     :     21%
(d) Others                                       :     19%
Monazite (Ce,La,Y,Th)PO4
Monazite is used as a source of Thorium and Rare-Earth.
BEACH-SAND MINERAL INDUSTRY IN INDIA: AN OUTLOOK
The beach sand mineral industry in India dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. The growth of this industry has been relegated to three distinct periods: 1. between 1909 and 1919 when largely the discovery of the deposits was followed by German exploitation, 2. between 1918 and 1959 with the British control, and 3. the subsequent period in which the important events are the mining agency agreement and the nationalization. The exploitation of beach sand minerals and processing were earlier restricted to only Public sector Undertakings mainly by Indian Rare Earths Limited (IRE), which was set up by the Atomic Energy Commission with four divisions comprising Rare Earths Division at Alwaye, Minerals Division at Quilon, Thorium Division at Trombay and Orissa Sand Complex (OSCOM) at Matikhal near Chatarpur. The OSCOM was set up in 1977 with a target of annual production:
Ilmanite       -      2,20,000 tonnes
Rutile           -      10,000 tonnes
Sillimanite   -      30,000 tonnes
Zircon           -      2,000 tonnes
Monazite      -      4,000 tonnes
The commercial production at OSCOM started at 1986 but the production could never match the desired level for a long period due to various reasons. Indian Rare Earth also set up a Synthetic Rutile Plant to convert the ilmanite to Synthetic Rutile, with an annual capacity of 96,000 tonnes. However, due to some technical problem this plant could not run for long and the entire production of ilmanite from OSCOM plant is being exported to USA, Norway, Japan and South Korea while the garnet, sillimanite and zircon are sold in the domestic market and monazite is kept for Atomic Energy Department.

Production (MT)

Mineral
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
1
Ilmanite
138319
206034
240473
2
Rutile
4875
7589
8786
3
Sillimanite
7630
11340
13129
4
Zircon
2859
5386
6393
Considering the vast potential of beach-sand mineral industry in India, the Government of India has recently relaxed certain provisions and Private Companies have been allowed for the first time to participate in exploitation of these minerals. [To refer to these Policies and Statutory Provisions relating to exploitation of beach sand minerals from Government of India, Department of atomic Energy logon: http://www.sipcot.com/policies2_4.htm]. Moreover, there are other things which make mining of heavy minerals from Indian beach sand deposits favourable such as -
=> Deposits are easily accessible and free from human settlements.
=> As these heavy minerals are available in a shallow depth, it is easy to mine the raw sand.
=> There is no over-burden removal required before mining.
=> Beach-sand mining is eco-friendly unlike other mining operations. The original landscape is restored after mining, without radio-active mineral.
Hence, after considering all these favourable factors as well as the encouraging policies adopted by the Government of India in this regard, the prospects of beach sand mineral industry in India appear to be very bright.           

March 6, 2010

Indian China Clays: Occurrences, Uses and Properties


Both China clay and Ball clay belong to the kaolin group. Although the primary constituent is Kaolinite in both of them, the latter has greater plasticity and lesser refractoriness owing to the presence of Montmorillonite in considerable amounts. So, ball clay is normally added to china clay to achieve greater strength, increase refractoriness and the required plasticity. To discuss all aspects of ‘China Clay’ in one post would be quite a long one and a reader who is searching a specific topic about china clay, may not like to go through the whole article. So, we have divided the different topics of china clay like - its beneficiation, improvement in its quality (benefit) after different treatments of beneficiation, characteristics (properties) of china clay required for different industries etc. into separate posts. Here we will discuss the following:
=> Properties and occurrences of china clays particularly in India.
=> Uses of china clay in general.
=> A few addresses of Mines (also Suppliers) of Indian china clays along with their sample Test Reports given at the end.   
Properties and Occurrences of China Clay in India
As for genesis, both China clay and ball clay are the products of weathering processes of feldspathic rocks. What happens during weathering that the silica and iron oxides are partially leached with the residue (essentially an aluminium silicate in composition) forming the in-situ deposits. Depending upon the efficiency of the weathering process, the impurities like grit i.e. siliceous particles and iron oxide minerals exist in different percentages in different clay deposits.
India has extensive deposits of china clays distributed in almost all states. However, good deposits are found Chaibasa, Singhbhum (near Ranchi, Jharkhand), Mokdum Nagar, Kharidumri, Suri, Qasim Bazaar all in Bankura, Birbhum districts (West Bengal), Barmer, Pali, Bikaner, Ajmer, Nim-ka-Thana, Udaipur (Rajasthan), Anantpur, Nellore and Guntur (AP), Chanda, Ratnagiri (Maharashtra), Udhampur (J & K). Very good quality china clays are found in Kerala in Kundra (Quilon), Ernakulam and Trivandrum districts. The estimated total reserve of crude clay is around 7.5 lakh tones. The spray dried kaolin is marketed under the trade name “Kundara Kaolex”. The average chemical analyses of some Indian china clays are presented in the following table.         
   Table: Chemical Compositions (in %) of some Indian China Clays 
SOURCE
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
TiO2
CaO
MgO
K2O
Na2O
LOI
Gujarat
Kutch Minerals
Ashapura
AMI China Clay
Eklera

47.75
49.63
52.45
48.92

34.25
34.00
29.83
33.60

0.90
0.60
0.94
1.30

1.30
1.37
1.48
1.12

1.23
0.54
1.14
0.65

0.24
0.58
0.59
0.28

0.35
0.22
0.35
1.00

0.45
0.61
0.86
0.31

12.45
12.20
11.90
12.80
Bihar - Jharkh
Rajmahal (pink)
Rajmahal (white)
Chaibasa - I
Chaibasa (S.Fine)
Simultala

46.68
48.90
47.90
46.59
47.30

35.29
34.51
36.00
35.95
38.20

1.90
1.71
1.25
1.12
0.47

0.90
0.50
Tr.
Tr.
0.07

0.28
0.67
1.24
1.40
0.35

0.50
0.20
0.40
0.40
0.10

0.28
0.41
0.61
0.33
1.55

0.60
0.52
0.75
0.90
0.15

13.12
12.60
12.25
13.22
11.80
West Bengal
Mokdum Nagar
Mohammad Bazaar

44.10
44.30

37.39
36.69

2.60
2.10

1.37
0.80

0.10
0.30

Tr.
0.26

0.20
0.60

0.75
0.29

13.48
14.35
Rajasthan
Modi Clay (P-90)
Modi Clay (TT-75)

44.46
46.82

37.03
36.70

0.80
1.00

Tr.
0.20

2.00
0.70

0.41
0.25

0.07
0.15

1.02
0.20

14.65
13.87
Kerala
Marthandamkonam
Kundara, Quilon
English India
Chilambil, Trvndrm
Sasthavattom

46.47
45.83
46.30
45.60
44.11

38.13
38.17
38.80
37.40
38.17

0.28
1.43
0.50
0.75
1.30

0.79
0.40
0.10
0.90
1.55

Tr.
0.90
0.02
Tr.
Tr.

0.59
0.12
0.07
0.41
0.04

0.02
0.25
0.07
0.02
0.02

0.08
0.72
0.08
0.02
0.43

14.20
14.00
14.10
14.85
14.26
Tamil Nadu
Neyveli Clay

45.00

36.72

0.38

1.75

0.55

Tr.

0.03

0.24

14.24

Uses of China Clay
China clay is used in rubber, ceramic, textile, paint, pharmaceutical, paper, cosmetic industries and also as in refractory industry for the production of insulation bricks, insulation mortars and castables [Refer to our separate post Use of China Clay as Raw Material in the Production of Refractory Insulation Bricks].
In ceramics china clay is widely used in manufacturing earthenware, fine china, stoneware, tiles, pipes etc. Usage of china clay for ceramic industry depends on factors like - plasticity, shrinkage after drying and on firing, colour on firing, refractoriness etc. The grit content should be around 1%.
The fine grained kaolinites (China clays) mixed with montmorillonites find applications in foundry moulding sands. Purer forms of china clays have extensive uses in paper, textile, rubber and cosmetic industries. [Refer to our separate post Characteristics of China Clay Required for Ceramic and Other Industries].
As a decolouriser of oils it is known as ‘Fuller’s Earth’. Mixtures of china clays and montmorillonites are also used as cracking catalysts for heavy petroleum fractions. Other areas of limited use are leather, paint, plastics, soaps, polishing compounds, emulsifying agents etc.        
Mines and Suppliers
Below are addresses of some of the above mentioned mines (also suppliers) of china clays of different grades form Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal whom I visited during 2005 - 2006 accompanied by the test results of the china clay samples that were drawn and collected by myself during my visits to these mines.
Chaibasa (Singhbhum) China Clay
Address:
Singhbhum Mineral Co., Post Box No. - 24, Station Road, PO- Chaibasa
PIN - 833 201 (Jharkhand).
Contact person: Hemant Rathore (Mine owner)
Tel: 91-6582-256551/258336
Mob: 91-9431110051.
Mine address:
Singhbhum Minerals, Hatgamharia, Chaibasa (Jharkhand).
Sample Test Report (average report):
1. Sample = China clay (RT grade), drawn from Pit No.9.
Total Shrinkage (after drying & firing 1330OC/2 hrs) = 15%
Characteristics = White, clean, no spot.
LOI % - 11.6 
Al2O3% (min) - 36.0
Fe2O3% (max) - 1.7
TiO2% (max) - 0.15
2. Sample = China clay (pink variety)
Total Shrinkage (after drying & firing 1330OC/2 hrs) = 17%
Characteristics = Pinkish White, clean, no spot.
LOI % - 11.5 
Al2O3% (min) - 33.52
Fe2O3% (max) - 3.04
TiO2% (max) - 0.15
3. Sample = China clay (RT grade, upper layer) drawn from Pit No.9.
Total Shrinkage (after drying & firing 1330OC/2 hrs) = 15%
Characteristics = White, clean, no spot.
LOI % - 11.6 
Al2O3% (min) - 36.28
Fe2O3% (max) - 1.9
TiO2% (max) - 0.12

Mine address:
D.M.Minerals, Gondkida Mines, Hat Gamharia, Chaibasa (Jharkhand).
Sample Test Report (average report):
1. Sample = China clay (Special/Rubber grade)
Total Shrinkage (after drying & firing 1330OC/2 hrs) = 16%
Characteristics = Milky white, clean, without any spot.
LOI % - 14 
Al2O3% (min) - 36.0
Fe2O3% (max) - 1.92
TiO2% (max) - 0.25
2. Sample = China clay (crude, unwashed)
Total Shrinkage (after drying & firing 1330OC/2 hrs) = 12%
Characteristics = Pinkish White, clean, no spot.
LOI % - 13.8 
Al2O3% (min) - 36.00
Fe2O3% (max) - 1.96
TiO2% (max) - 0.02
3. Sample = China clay (SF grade)
Total Shrinkage (after drying & firing 1330OC/2 hrs) = 16%
Characteristics = Milky white, clean, no spot.
LOI % - 14.4 
Al2O3% (min) - 36.44
Fe2O3% (max) - 1.39
TiO2% (max) - 0.40

Address:
Gupta Minerals, PO- Hat Gamharia, Dist.- West Singhbhum
PIN - 833 214 (Jharkhand).
Contact person: Ajay Kr. Gupta (Mine Owner & Supplier)
Tel: 91-6589-285267
Mob: 91-983213463, 91-9835142033
Sample Test Report (average report):
Sample = China clay (SF grade)
Total Shrinkage (after drying & firing 1330OC/2 hrs) = 17%
Characteristics = Buff, Off-white.
LOI % - 10.0 
Al2O3% (min) - 33.0
Fe2O3% (max) - 2.8 - 3.0
TiO2% (max) - 1.0
(CaO + MgO) - 0.5
Na2O - 0.88
K2O - 1.38
PCE - 30 (Orton)
Address:
Chotanagpur Commercial Corpn. (P) Ltd.
Post Box - 54, Chaibasa Dist.- West Singhbhum
PIN - 833 201 (Jharkhand).
Contact person: R.P. Rungta (Supplier)
Tel: 91-6582-256062, 91-33-22101235/1236
Mob: 91-9431110291
Sample Test Report (average report):
Sample = China clay
Total Shrinkage (after drying & firing 1330OC/2 hrs) = 14 - 15%
Characteristics = Yellowish white, clean.
LOI % - 12.0 
Al2O3% (min) - 31.38
Fe2O3% (max) - 3.36
TiO2% (max) - 0.30
PCE - 29 - 30 (Orton)
Lohardaga China Clay (Near Ranchi, Jharkhand)
Address:
Regal Sales and Marketing, Lohardaga, Ranchi
Sample Test Report (average report):
Sample = China clay (INDAL Type)
Total Shrinkage (after drying & firing 1300OC/2 hrs) = 7%
Characteristics = Milky white, clean.
LOI % - 14.0 
Al2O3% (min) - 37.00
Fe2O3% (max) - 1.35
TiO2% (max) - 3.0
PCE - 32+ (Orton)
Bhilwara (Rajasthan) China Clay
Address:
Bhilwara China Clay Suppliers
Main Bazaar, Bhilwara (Rajasthan)
Sample Test Report (average report):
Sample = China clay
Total Shrinkage (after drying & firing 1400OC/2 hrs) = 16%
Characteristics = Greenish white, clean, minor crizzling.
AP = 5.5
BD = 2.5 gm/cc
LOI % - 13.5 
Al2O3% (min) - 37.0
Fe2O3% (max) - 1.4
TiO2% (max) - 4.0
PCE - 32 (Orton)
Suri, Birbhum China Clay (West Bengal)
Address:
A.K. Industries Pvt. Ltd.,
P-7, Dr. Suresh Banerjee Road, Kolkata - 85.
Tel: 91-33-23505765/25348349/25533737
Mob: 91-9831219022
Contact person: Soumendu Nag
Mob: 91-9434007964.
Mine address:
A.K. Industries Pvt. Ltd. Village - Kalipur
P.O.-Barabagan, Suri
Dist. - Birbhum (WB).
Tel: 91-3462-225423
Sample Test Report (average report):
1. Sample = China clay
Total Shrinkage (after drying & firing 1400OC/2 hrs) = 18%
Characteristics = White, clean.
AP = 10%
BD = 2.42
LOI % - 14 
Al2O3% (min) - 37.0
Fe2O3% (max) - 2.3
TiO2% (max) - 2.5
PCE = 33 (Orton)
Address:
Patelnagar Minerals & Industries Pvt. Ltd. (PMI),
20B, Abdul Hamid Street (1st Floor), Kolkata - 700069.
Tel: 91-33-22486915/22486928/23371276
Fax: 91-33-22489546
Contact person: A.Ahmed (Chief Executive)
Tel: 91-3462-260245/260213
Mines and Refinery address:
PMI Private Ltd., Patelnagar, Suri
Dist. - Birbhum (WB)
Tel: 91-3462-260225/260223
Sample Test Report (average report):
Sample = China clay (Refractory grade)
[All grades of china clay are available with them suitable for rubber, textile, cosmetic, paint and paper industries.]
Total Shrinkage (after drying & firing 1330OC/2 hrs) = 18%
Characteristics = Off-white, clean.
AP = 7%
BD = 2.5
LOI % - 14 
Al2O3% (min) - 37.0
Fe2O3% (max) - 2.0
TiO2% (max) - 3.0
PCE = 32½ (Orton)
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