January 16, 2010

Refractory Properties of Fireclay Deposits Found Around Bihar, Bengal and Jharkhand in India


The chief raw material for the manufacture of fireclay bricks is fireclay itself. In India there are some very good deposits of fireclay spread over many parts of the country mainly Bihar, Bengal, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh (AP), Gujarat, Rajasthan and Tamilnadu. Fire clays from Raniganj, Jharia and Rajhara coalfields are very important. The fireclays found in these areas are of all type: Plastic, Semi-plastic, and Non-plastic fireclays. In general, the fire clays from both these coal fields occur within Barakars. Important deposits are found around Suri (Patelnagar or PMI), Birbhum, Raniganj, Barakar, Kulti, Kumardhubi, Mugma, Purulia, Garphalbari-Dahibari region, Damagoria, Ramgarh, Ranchi, Sahjora, Lohardaga, Balumath (near Ranchi, Latehar), Pathardih, Dhanbad, Bankura (Manipur - Beldanga), Rampurhat, Churulia, Radhaballabhpur, Chaibasa, Rajhara and Daltonganj.
Being a refractory technologist, I (the author of this Blog) had been to most of these fireclay mines of the above-mentioned areas and evaluated their samples in refractory labs and also used some of them in the production of refractory bricks and monolithics. Below are the data showing some important refractory and other properties of these fireclays (raw / non-calcined):
Bankura Plastic Clay
(1) Briquette Test at 1400OC / 2hrs:
Total Shrinkage % = 9 - 11
AP % = 24 - 25
BD = 2.20
Characteristics =   Buff, minor crizzling
(2) Chemical Properties:
LOI % - 10  
Al2O3% (min) - 33.0
Fe2O3% (max) - 2.5
TiO2% (max) - 2.5
Na2O% (max) - 0.72
K2O% (max) - 0.44
(3) Refractoriness:
PCE (OC) = 30 - 31
Rampurhat Plastic Clay
(1) Briquette Test at 1330OC / 2hrs:
Total Shrinkage % = 13 - 14
Characteristics =   Buff, crizzling.
(2) Chemical Properties:
LOI % - 12  
Al2O3% (min) - 33.0
Fe2O3% (max) - 4.0
TiO2% (max) - 4.16
Na2O% (max) - 0.70
K2O% (max) - 0.13
(3) Refractoriness:
PCE (OC) = 32½  
Sahjora Plastic Clay (Pink type)
(1) Briquette Test at 1400OC / 2hrs:
Total Shrinkage % = 8 - 10
AP % = 22 - 24
BD = 2.15
Characteristics =   Yellowish, Off-white.
(2) Chemical Properties:
LOI % - 10  
Al2O3% (min) - 25.0
Fe2O3% (max) - 2.5
TiO2% (max) - 1.70
Na2O% (max) - 0.82
K2O% (max) - 1.25
(3) Refractoriness:
PCE (OC) = 28 - 30
Sahjora Plastic Clay (White type, Grade - B)
(1) Briquette Test at 1400OC / 2hrs:
Total Shrinkage % = 8 - 10
AP % = 18 - 20
BD = 2.25
Characteristics =   Deep buff. Shining lusture.
(2) Chemical Properties:
LOI % - 10  
Al2O3% (min) - 28.0
Fe2O3% (max) - 3.0
TiO2% (max) - 2.0
Na2O% (max) - 0.82
K2O% (max) - 1.25
(3) Refractoriness:
PCE (OC) = 28 - 30
Suri Semi-Plastic Clay (Patelnagar)
(1) Briquette Test at 1400OC / 2hrs:
Total Shrinkage % = 13 - 15
AP % = 25 - 27
BD = 2.10
Characteristics =   White, crizzling.
(2) Chemical Properties:
LOI % - 13 - 14  
Al2O3% (min) - 37.0
Fe2O3% (max) - 2.5
TiO2% (max) - 2.5
Na2O% (max) - 0.63
K2O% (max) - 0.08
(3) Refractoriness:
PCE (OC) = 33+
Purulia Stone
(1) Briquette Test at 1400OC / 2hrs:
Total Shrinkage % = Very less (around 1%)
AP % = 7 - 8
Characteristics =   White, no crizzling (a type of hard fireclay or clay-stone).
(2) Chemical Properties:
LOI % - 1 - 3  
Al2O3% - 30 to 31
Fe2O3% (max) - 1.0
(3) Refractoriness:
PCE (OC) = 31
Balumath (near Latehar, Ranchi) Non-Plastic Clay (Black type)
(1) Briquette Test at 1400OC / 2hrs:
Total Shrinkage % = 18 - 20
AP % = 18 - 20
BD = 2.2
Characteristics =   Cream or Off-white.
(2) Chemical Properties:
LOI % - 10 - 11  
Al2O3% (min) - 30.0
Fe2O3% (max) - 1.3
TiO2% (max) - 1.8
(CaO + MgO)% - 0.5
Na2O% (max) - 0.72
K2O% (max) - 0.82
(3) Refractoriness:
PCE (OC) = Close to 32.
Balumath (near Latehar, Ranchi) Non-Plastic Clay (White/Gray type)
(1) Briquette Test at 1400OC / 2hrs:
Total Shrinkage % = 4 - 6
AP % = 22 - 24
BD = 2.2
Characteristics =   White.
(2) Chemical Properties:
LOI % - 10 - 11  
Al2O3% (min) - 30.0
Fe2O3% (max) - 1.3
TiO2% (max) - 2.0
(CaO + MgO)% - 0.5
(Na2O + K2O)% (max) - 1.0
(3) Refractoriness:
PCE (OC) = 31½.
Balumath (near Latehar, Ranchi) Non-Plastic Clay (Brown type)
(1) Briquette Test at 1400OC / 2hrs:
Total Shrinkage % = 8 - 9
AP % = 22
BD = 2.2
Characteristics =   Milky White.
(2) Chemical Properties:
LOI % - 10 - 11  
Al2O3% (min) - 31.5
Fe2O3% (max) - 1.2
TiO2% (max) - 2.0
(CaO + MgO)% - 0.5
(Na2O + K2O)% (max) - 1.0
(3) Refractoriness:
PCE (OC) = 32. 
(To be continued)


2 comments:

  1. Thank you so much for all the information that you have posted through your blogs. These have been of great help to me. Thanks again. antra@antrasinha.com

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thank you so much for all the information that you have posted on your blog. These have been very helpful to me. Thanks again. antrasinha.com

    ReplyDelete